Radiologia Brasileira. Print version ISSN equina: review of the literature. Raízes nervosas redundantes da cauda equina: revisão da literatura. Imagenologia en Equinos. Public. · Hosted by Can-Horse Asesoria Veterinaria y etológica. Interested. clock. Mar 18, at AM – Mar 19, at PM. Dec 3, at AM – Dec 4, at PM UTC More than a year ago. pin. CESPO. Avenida Boyacá No A – 55, Bogotá, Colombia. Show Map.
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Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina. How to cite this article. The anatomical study developed by Suzuki et al. The electrophysiological study of redundant nerve roots has demonstrated temporal dispersion of the action potential and delay of the velocity of the sensitive nervous conduction, although the difference in the velocity of sensitive nervous conduction has not been statistically significant 8.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. In equinq investigation, those authors have not demonstrated any significant change in the anterior horn and in the anterolateral columns of the spinal cord.
Redundant nerve roots in the cauda equina. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
The present paper is aimed at reviewing the histopathological, electrophysiological and imaging findings, particularly at magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the clinical meaning of this entity. Therefore the authors of the present review suggest that radiologists should look for RNR of the cauda equina at MRI and, if applicable, describe such finding in their reports.
MR and myelographic findings. The myelographic pattern described in redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina corresponds to serpiginous intradural filling defects associated with a partial or complete blockage of the transit of contrast material and, therefore, spinal canal stenosis Some investigations suggest that such abnormalities of the nerve roots are irreversible, and, therefore, the neurological symptoms are not susceptible to improvement after surgical decompression 8,9.
Clinical significance of redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina in lumbar spinal stenosis.
Serpentine cauda equina nerve roots. The prevalence of this syndrome may reach At the time, myelography was the only imaging method available to document the anatomy and pathology of nerve roots of the cauda equina in vivo. A radicular syndrome from developmental narrowing of the lumbar vertebral canal.
Most recently imaging findings of RNR of the cauda equina were also described for magnetic resonance imaging MRI All the patients in that study were preoperatively submitted to myelography and MRI, and for the purpose of statistical analysis, the patients were divided into three groups, as follows: The present study authors did not find any other study investigating such type of imaging finding in relation to postsurgical outcomes.
In such conditions, MRI usually shows intradural serpiginous vessels and ectasia of the coronal venous plexus Figure 3.
Curso de Imagenología en Equinos Atletas
Suggested pathological basis of “redundant nerve root syndrome” of the cauda equina. The study authors have suggested that such results reflected the reduction and degeneration of the nerve fibers 8. Electromyographic abnormalities in redundant nerve root syndrome of the cauda equina. RNR are typically associated with vertebral canal stenosis, and clinically the patient presents neurogenic claudication.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. Suggested pathological basis of “redundant nerve root syndrome” of the cauda equina. Redundancy of the nerve roots is probably the pathological result of a chronic compressive force at the level of the site of spinal canal constriction 9.
The opening of the dura mater may be performed to rule out the hypothesis of arteriovenous malformation 7 or simply because surgeons have decided that such a procedure should be a part of the decompression 6, Spontaneous extrusion of elongated roots usually occurs during the surgical opening of the dura mater 2,6,7,11, The clinical condition of patients with RNR of the cauda equina is related to the natural history of the lumbar spinal canal stenosis.
Radiologia Equina by JULIANA BERNARDO on Prezi
The redundant nerve root syndrome of the cauda equina. Low degree of nerve cells loss and spinal ganglion fibrosis were observed, but such changes were equally present in non-redundant roots and were, therefore, considered as changes related to aging. The anatomical study developed by Suzuki et al.
The present article is eqjina at reviewing the findings described on publications related to RNR of the cauda equina, with emphasis on imaging findings, and particularly at MRI.
The prevalence of this syndrome may reach The recognition of redundant nerve roots at magnetic resonance imaging is important, particularly to avoid misdiagnosing other conditions such as intradural arteriovenous malformations.
RNR are typically associated with vertebral canal stenosis, and clinically the patient presents neurogenic claudication. Imagenolgoia two other studies, the postoperative improvement was not statistically different in patients with and without RNR of the cauda equina 12,13but in one of those studies a tendency towards worse results for patients with RNR of the cauda equina was identified, similarly to the results reported by Ono et al.
Imagenologia en Equinos
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: Therefore the authors of the present review suggest that radiologists should look for RNR of the cauda equina at MRI and, if applicable, describe such finding equinz their reports. The clinical significance of such abnormality of the cauda squina in the progression of lumbar canal stenosis is still controversial, but there are indications in the literature imavenologia that its identification at MRI may indicate a tendency towards worse postoperative results.
One believes that chronic lumbar stenosis is the primary cause of symptoms. The clinical significance of such abnormality of the cauda equina in equna progression of lumbar canal stenosis is still controversial, but there are indications in the literature suggesting that its eqyina at MRI may indicate a tendency towards worse postoperative results.
The relative length was obtained by measuring the distance from the maximum stenosis level to the most imagenologgia point where the presence of redundant roots could be identified, and by dividing such obtained value by the height of the vertebral body located above the stenosis level. The greater the relative length, the better the postoperative outcomes, a result that, at a first analysis, seems to be unexpected, leading the study authors to raise the hypothesis that such result was related to a greater accommodation capability of the longer redundant roots during flexion and extension of the spinal column, as related to effects of traction forces The topographic distribution in observed in cases of redundant nerve roots was Initially, RNR of the cauda equina was described as being identified at myelography as serpiginous filling defects associated with partial or total blockage preventing the transit of contrast material Other diseases can cause hypertrophic neuropathy such as arachnoiditis, chronic inflammatory demyelinat-ing polyneuropathy and some hereditary neuropathies; but association between such entities and serpiginous nerve eqjina of cauda equina was not reported.
Figures equija and 2 illustrate the typical MRI findings in cases of redundant nerve roots. In two other studies, the postoperative improvement was not statistically different in patients with and without RNR of the cauda equina 12,13but in one of those studies a tendency towards worse results for patients with RNR of the cauda equina was identified, similarly to the results reported by Ono et al.
The authors standardized the measurement of the relative length of the nerve roots on the most central sagittal image of the lumbar column. Knotted neurinoma or plexiform neurofibroma in the cauda equina author’s transl.